Microbiology lecture note terminology People


1486-1553. Germ theory of disease; not accepted until years later. Experimental proof non-existant 'til 1800s

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

1685. Used microscopes to find “animalcules”

Redi & spallanzani

1668 (R), 1776 (S). Enclosed meat experiment. “Disproven” because of lack of air

Edward Jenner

Immunisation. Milk maids immune to small pox (they have cow pox)

Louis Pasteur

Swan-neck flask experiment. Substance + air, but no spontaneous generation. 1897: Cholera bacteria lost virulence e/ time (attenuated). Important for immunization. Theory (1857) microorganisms cause disease by producing specific molecues.

Holmes and Semmelweis

Mid 1800s. Handwashing prevents transmission of infectious disease Puerperal fever


Spray air w/ phenol to protect open wounds from being infected

Robert Koch

Relationship between micro-organisms and disease


Certain chemicals selectively destroy bacteria and do not affect the body cells (chemotherapy)


(1942) penicillin. Penicillium notatum


Prontosil --> sulfanilamide

Robert Whittaker

5 kingdoms. Animal, plant, myceteae/fungu, protista, prokaryotes/monera

Carl Woese

3 kingdom system. Bacteria, archaeabacteria, eukaryotes

Carl von Linne

Formal system of organizing, classifying and naming

Hans Christian Gram

1886. gram stain. Differential stain


Transformation experiments in 1920s