Microbiology lecture note terminology

Rest of introduction

Spontaneous generation theory

Life only arises from dead or organic matter


Simplest, smallest, single-celled


Non-cellular, parasitic, living organisms


Microscopic (molds and yeasts), macroscopic (mushrooms and puff balls)

Germ theory of disease

Disease transmitted by “invisible animals” or in this case germs

Swan neck flask

Capable of keeping bacterial spores from colonizing the organic material, but still providing air for “spontaneous generation”

Koch's postulates

1. Same microbe always associated w/ a particular disease

2. the microbe can be recovered and grown in pure culture

3. the pure culture must cause disease in experimental animals

4. the original microbe must be recovered from the experimental animal

problems: mycobacterium leprae requires animal host, Neisseria gonorrhoeae only human hosts and opportunistic pathogens only in immunocompromised hosts


The use of chemical agents that can selectively destroy pathogenic agent while leaving body cells unaffected


A chemotherapeutic agent used against syphilis


Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

Eukaryote properties

5-10um, algae/fungi have cell walls, hav nuclear membranes, have nuceolus, > 1 chromosome, chromosome associated proteins, large 80S ribosome, mitochondria for respirations, sexual/asexual repro, almost exclusively aerobic

Prokaryote properties

1-3um; mycoplasma have no cell wall, all others do; no nucleus or nucleolus; no chromosome associated proteins; small 70S ribosome; respiration in cytoplasmic membrane; asexual repro; aerobic, facultative or anaerobic